Home » BUSINESS STUDIES Syllabus Classes XII


Semester III
Principles and Functions of Management     (Total Periods 104)

Unit I: Nature and Significance of Management       (Periods 10)

• Management – concept, objectives, importance.
• Nature of management; Management as Science, Art, Profession.
• Levels of management – top, middle supervisory (First level).
• Management functions – planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling.
• Coordination – nature and importance.

Unit II: Principles of Management          (Periods 10)

• Principles of Management – meaning, nature and significance.
• Fayol’s principles of management.
• Taylor’s Scientific Management – Principles and Techniques.

Unit III: Business Environment             (Periods 10)

• Business Environment – meaning and importance.
• Dimensions of Business Environment – Economic, Social, Technological, Political and Legal.
• Economic Environment in India; Impact of Government policy changes on business and industry, with special reference to adoption of the policies of liberalization privatization and globalisation.

Unit IV: Planning          (Periods 14)

• Meaning, features, importance, limitations.
• Planning process.
• Types of Plans – Objectives, Strategy, Policy, Procedure, Method, Rule, Budget, Programme.

Unit V: Organising             (Periods 16)

• Meaning and importance.
• Steps in the process of organising.
• Structure of organization – functional, and divisional.
• Formal and informal organisation.
• Delegation: meaning elements and importance.
• Decentralization: meaning and importance.
• Difference between delegation and decentralisation.

Unit VI: Staffing            (Periods 16)

• Meaning, need and importance of staffing.
• Staffing as a part of Human Resources Management.
• Steps in staffing process.
• Recruitment – meaning and sources.
• Selection – meaning and process.
• Training and Development – meaning, need, methods – on the job and off the job methods of training.

Unit VII: Directing        (Periods 16)

• Meaning, importance and principles.
• Elements of Direction:
– Supervision – meaning and importance
– Motivation – meaning and importance, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs; Financial and non- financial incentives.
– Leadership – meaning, importance; qualities of a good leader.
– Communication – meaning and importance, formal and informal communication; barriers to effective communication.

Unit VIII: Controlling                   (Periods 12)

• Meaning and importance.
• Relationship between planning and controlling.
• Steps in the process of control.
• Techniques of controlling.

Semester IV
Business Finance and Marketing            (Total Periods 104)

Unit IX: Business Finance                   (Periods 20)

• Business finance – meaning, role, objectives of financial management.
• Financial planning – meaning and importance.
• Capital Structure – meaning and factors.
• Fixed and Working Capital – meaning and factors affecting their requirements.

Unit X: Financial Markets                  (Periods 20)

• Concept of Financial Market: Money Market – nature instruments;
• Capital market: nature and types – primary and secondary market.
• Distinction between capital market and money market.
• Stock Exchange – meaning, functions, NSEI, OCTEI, Trading Procedure.
• Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) – Objectives, Functions.

Unit XI: Marketing              (Periods 30)

• Marketing – meaning, functions, role.
• Distinction between marketing and selling.
• Marketing mix – concept and elements:
– Product – nature, classification, branding, labeling and packaging
– Physical distribution: meaning, role; Channels of distribution, – meaning, types, factors,
– determining choice of channels.
– Promotion – meaning and role, promotion mix, Role of Advertising and personal selling;
– objections to Advertising.
– Price: factors influencing pricing.

Unit XII: Consumer Protection             (Periods 16)

• Importance of consumer protection.
• Consumer rights.
• Consumer responsibilities.
• Ways and means of consumer protection – Consumer awareness and legal redressal with
special reference to Consumer protection Act.
• Role of consumer organizations and NGOs.

Unit XIII: Entrepreneurship Development           (Periods 18)

• Concept, Functions and Need.
• Entrepreneurship Characteristics and Competencies.
• Process of Entrepreneurship Development.
• Entrepreneurial Values, Attitudes and Motivation – Meaning and Concept.