Geography is introduced as an elective subject at the higher secondary stage. After ten years of general education, students branch out at the beginning of this stage and are exposed to the rigours of the discipline for the first time. Being an entry point for the higher education, students choose geography for pursuing their academic interest and, therefore, need a broader and deeper understanding of the subject. For others, geographical knowledge is useful in daily lives because it is a valuable medium for the education of young people. Its contributions lie in the content, cognitive processes, skills and values that geography promotes and thus helps the students explore, understand and evaluate the environmental and social dimensions of the world in a better manner.

Since geography explores the relationship between people and their environment, it includes studies of physical and human environments and their interactions at different scales — local, state/region, nation and the world. The fundamental principles responsible for the varieties in the distributional pattern of physical and human features and phenomena over the earth’s surface need to be understood properly. Application of these principles would be taken up through selected case studies from the world and India. Thus, the physical and human environment
of India and study of some issues from a geographical point of view will be covered in greater detail. Students will be exposed to different methods used in geographical investigations.

Common Core Components (NPE 1986) such as India’s common cultural heritage, equality of sexes, protection of environment, observance of the small family norm and inculcation of scientific temper will be reflected in the geography syllabus.

The geography course will incorporate some issues of NCF – 2005 such as making children sensitive to environment and its protection to nurture and preserve the environment, and using geographical knowledge in understanding various environmental and socio-economic issues of the community, region and the country, e.g. gender and marginalised groups.


The course in geography will help learners:
• Familiarise themselves with the terms, key concepts and basic principles of geography;
• Search for, recognise and understand the processes and patterns of the spatial arrangement of the natural as well as human features and phenomena on the earth’s surface;
• Understand and analyse the inter-relationship between physical and human environments and their impact;
• Apply geographical knowledge and methods of inquiry to new situations or problems at different levels — local/regional, national and global;
• Develop geographical skills, relating to collection, processing and analysis of data/information and preparation of report including maps and graphics and use of computers wherever possible; and
• Utilize geographical knowledge in understanding issues concerning the community such as environmental issues, socio-economic concerns, gender and become responsible and effective member of the community.

Course Structure
Class XI
A. Fundamentals of Physical Geography           Periods 88
B. India – Physical Environment                        Periods 78
C. Practical Work (Unit I and II)                        Periods 54

Class XII
A. Fundamentals of Human Geography           Periods 85
B. India – People and Economy                         Periods 85
C. Practical Work (Unit I and II)                        Periods 50

Note: There will be six textbooks, two for theory and one for practical work for each class.
Evaluation in geography should be based on the objectives of geography that are to be realised at this stage. There is a need to introduce continuous and comprehensive evaluation in a systematic manner. Emphasis is to be given on evaluating learners’ progress in acquiring various geographical skills along with the cognitive areas.