A. Fundamentals of Physical Geography (Periods 88)
Unit I: Geography as a Discipline (Periods 6)
• Geography as an integrating discipline, as a science of spatial attributes;
• Branches of geography; importance of physical geography
Unit II: The Earth (Periods 12)
• Origin and evolution of the earth; Interior of the earth; Wegener’s continental drift theory and
plate tectonics; Earthquakes and volcanoes;
Unit III: Landforms (Periods 20)
• Rocks and minerals – major types of rocks and their characteristics;
• Landforms and their evolution
• Geomorphic processes – weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition; soils – formation
Unit IV: Climate (Periods 30)
• Atmosphere – compositions and structure; elements of weather and climate;
• Insolation – angle of incidence and distribution; heat budget of the earth – heating and cooling of atmosphere(conduction, convection, terrestrial radiation, advection); temperature – factors controlling temperature; distribution of temperature – horizontal and vertical; inversion of temperature;
• Pressure – pressure belts; winds – planetary seasonal and local, air masses and fronts; tropical and extra tropical cyclones;
• Precipitation – evaporation; condensation – dew, frost, fog, mist and cloud; rainfall – types and world distribution;
• World climates – classification (Koeppen), greenhouse effect, global warming and climatic changes.
Unit V: Water (Oceans) (Periods 12)
• Hydrological Cycle;
• Oceans — submarine relief; distribution of temperature and salinity; movements of ocean water–waves, tides and currents.
Unit VI: Life on the Earth (Periods 8)
• Biosphere – importance of plants and other organisms; biodiversity and conservation; ecosystems, bio-geo chemical cycle, and ecological balance.
B. India – Physical Environment (Periods 78)
Unit I: Introduction (Periods 6)
• Location – space relations and India’s place in the world.
Unit II: Physiography (Periods 24)
• Structure and Relief;
• Drainage systems: concept of water sheds: the Himalayan and the Peninsular ;
• Physiographic divisions.
Unit III: Climate, Vegetation and Soil (Periods 26)
• Weather and climate – spatial and temporal distribution of temperature, pressure , winds and rainfall; Indian monsoons: mechanism, onset and variability – spatial and temporal; climatic types;
• Natural vegetation – forest types and distribution; wild life; conservation; biosphere reserves;
• Soils – major types (ICAR’s classification) and their distribution, soil degradation and conservation.
Unit IV: Natural Hazards and Disasters: Causes, Consequences and Management
(One case study to be introduced for each topic) (Periods 22)
• Floods and droughts
• Earthquakes and Tsunami
C. Practical Work (Periods 54)
Unit I : Fundamentals of Maps (Periods 22)
• Maps – types; scales – types; construction of linear scales, measuring distance, finding direction
and use of symbols;
• Latitude, Longitude and time;
• Map projection – typology, construction and properties of conical with one standard parallel
and Mercator’s projection.
Unit II : Topographic and Weather Maps (Periods 32)
• Study of topographic maps (1:50,000 or 1:25,000, Survey of India maps): contour cross section and identification of landforms – slopes hills, valleys, waterfalls, cliffs; distribution of settlements;
• Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images:
Aerial Photographs: Types and Geometry – vertical aerial photographs; difference between maps Satellite images:
and aerial photographs; photo scale determination. Stages in remote sensing data acquisition, platform and sensors and data products, (photographic and digital) Interpretation of physical and cultural features from aerial photographs and satellite imageries.
• Use of weather instruments: thermometer, wet and dry-bulb thermometer, barometer, windvane, raingauge.
• Use of weather charts: describing pressure, wind and rainfall distribution.