A. Fundamentals of Physical Geography        (Periods 88)


Unit I: Geography as a Discipline          (Periods 6)

• Geography as an integrating discipline, as a science of spatial attributes;
• Branches of geography; importance of physical geography

Unit II: The Earth         (Periods 12)

• Origin and evolution of the earth; Interior of the earth; Wegener’s continental drift theory and
plate tectonics; Earthquakes and volcanoes;

Unit III: Landforms           (Periods 20)

• Rocks and minerals – major types of rocks and their characteristics;
• Landforms and their evolution
• Geomorphic processes – weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition; soils – formation

Unit IV: Climate        (Periods 30)

• Atmosphere – compositions and structure; elements of weather and climate;
• Insolation – angle of incidence and distribution; heat budget of the earth – heating and cooling of atmosphere(conduction, convection, terrestrial radiation, advection); temperature – factors controlling temperature; distribution of temperature – horizontal and vertical; inversion of temperature;
• Pressure – pressure belts; winds – planetary seasonal and local, air masses and fronts; tropical and extra tropical cyclones;
• Precipitation – evaporation; condensation – dew, frost, fog, mist and cloud; rainfall – types and world distribution;
• World climates – classification (Koeppen), greenhouse effect, global warming and climatic changes.

Unit V: Water (Oceans)          (Periods 12)

• Hydrological Cycle;
• Oceans — submarine relief; distribution of temperature and salinity; movements of ocean water–waves, tides and currents.
Unit VI: Life on the Earth              (Periods 8)

• Biosphere – importance of plants and other organisms; biodiversity and conservation; ecosystems, bio-geo chemical cycle, and ecological balance.

B. India – Physical Environment            (Periods 78)


Unit I: Introduction               (Periods 6)

• Location – space relations and India’s place in the world.

Unit II: Physiography             (Periods 24)

• Structure and Relief;
• Drainage systems: concept of water sheds: the Himalayan and the Peninsular ;
• Physiographic divisions.

Unit III: Climate, Vegetation and Soil             (Periods 26)

• Weather and climate – spatial and temporal distribution of temperature, pressure , winds and rainfall; Indian monsoons: mechanism, onset and variability – spatial and temporal; climatic types;
• Natural vegetation – forest types and distribution; wild life; conservation; biosphere reserves;
• Soils – major types (ICAR’s classification) and their distribution, soil degradation and conservation.

Unit IV: Natural Hazards and Disasters: Causes, Consequences and Management
(One case study to be introduced for each topic)                     (Periods 22)

• Floods and droughts
• Earthquakes and Tsunami
• Cyclones
• Landslides

C. Practical Work           (Periods 54)


Unit I : Fundamentals of Maps               (Periods 22)

• Maps – types; scales – types; construction of linear scales, measuring distance, finding direction
and use of symbols;
• Latitude, Longitude and time;
• Map projection – typology, construction and properties of conical with one standard parallel
and Mercator’s projection.

Unit II : Topographic and Weather Maps                (Periods 32)

• Study of topographic maps (1:50,000 or 1:25,000, Survey of India maps): contour cross section and identification of landforms – slopes hills, valleys, waterfalls, cliffs; distribution of settlements;
• Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images:
Aerial Photographs: Types and Geometry – vertical aerial photographs; difference between maps Satellite images:
and aerial photographs; photo scale determination. Stages in remote sensing data acquisition, platform and sensors and data products, (photographic and digital) Interpretation of physical and cultural features from aerial photographs and satellite imageries.
• Use of weather instruments: thermometer, wet and dry-bulb thermometer, barometer, windvane, raingauge.
• Use of weather charts: describing pressure, wind and rainfall distribution.

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