Answer the following Question
Q1. Match the following statements in a way that challenges stereotypes:
Ans: (a).3.Remark. Many people have formed a stereotype that people living in cities or having influential jobs like surgeon are busy and do not give time to their family. But this example proves that feelings for the family are universal and the surgeon wanted to talk to her daughter.
(b).4.Remark. This challenges the stereotype that crippled children are good for nothing. But the truth is that they have only one, or probably two defective organs, but they can still use their mind and talent and win prizes like this boy. .
(c).1.Remark. This challenges the stereotype that chronic asthma patients can not run fast or take part in sports.
(d).(2)Remark. This challenges the stereotype that only influential and high- class people can dream big. Even poor people can dream big and prove themselves.
Q2. How can the stereotype that girls are a burden on their parents affects the life of a daughter? Imagine this situation and list at least Jive different effects that this stereotype can have on the way daughters get treated in the house.
Ans: Girls have been treated as a burden since time immemorial. Even today their condition has not changed. Whether it is home or outside, they are not given due opportunity. The mental set-up of the parents is such that it never accepts the birth of a daughter wholeheartedly. As a result girls’ life is badly affected. Here is the list of five different effects that this stereotype can have on the way daughters get treated.
Girls would feel discouraged and they would not concentrate to their studies.
All their dreams to achieve separate identity in the society would be shattered.
Sometimes girls are not allowed to join any school or college. This ruthless altitude of the parents towards their daughters ruin their career. They feel helpless even in their parents’ house.
Even marriage does not bring fortune to the girls all the time. Some in-laws prove themselves good by giving proper treatment to the newly married girls. But most of the time we find that they are ill-treated in their in-laws’ house. They are subject to exploitation.
Q3. What does the Constitution say with regard to equality? Why do you think it is important for all people to be equal?
Ans: Our Constitution provides that the state shall not discriminate against any citizen on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex or region.
It is important for all people to be equal because only then our society would develop in true sense of the term. It is our right to be treated equally. It is our right to be given due respect. It is our right to be given equal opportunities. In absence of all these, our life would be hell. Our personality would be suppressed. Hence, we need equality so that we may go ahead without any hindrances. We may prove ourselves helpful in the development of the society and country.
Q4. Sometimes people make prejudiced comments in our presence. We are often not in a position to do anything about this because it is difficult to say something right then and there. Divide the class into groups and each group discuss what they could do in one of the following situations:
(a)A friend begins to tease a classmate because he is poor.
(b)You are watching TV with your family and one of them makes a prejudicial comment about a particular religious community.
(c)Children in your class refuse to share their food with a particular person because they think she is dirty.
(d)Someone tells you a joke that makes fun of a community because of their accent.
(e)Some boys make remarks about girls not being able to play games as well as them.
Discuss in class what the different groups have suggested for the above situations, and also talk about the problems that can come up when raising the issue.
Ans: (a)I would try to convince my friend that being a poor is not a crime nor a matter of laughter. Hence, he should not tease his classmate. Instead, he should take care of his dignity and self-respect.
(b)I would stop him/her to do that.
(c)I would advise my classmates to be friendly with one and all.
(d)I would not get involved in the joke and would proceed from their immediately
(e)I would try to convince those boys that girls are in no way less efficient than their male counterparts. I would give examples of Kalpana Chawla and Sunita Williams who did what many men could not think of.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
Choose the correct option to complete the statements given below:
(i) The number of major religions in the world is …………………
(a)six (b) seven
(c) eight (d) nine.
(ii) An important reason why Muslim girls do not attend school or drop out from
school after a few years is ………….
(a) poverty (b) superstition
(c)lack of willingness to go to school
(d)None of the above.
(iii)……… community was treated as untouchables in the Bombay Presidency.
(a) Koli (b) Mahar
(c) Nayar (d) Munda.
(iv)……… is known as the leader of the Dalits.
(a) Dr. Rajendra Prasad (b) Guru Teg Bahadur
(c) Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar (d) Sardar Ballabh Bhai Patel
(v) India is a secular country—It means ………………
(a)People of different religions have the freedom to practise their religion with any discrimination.
(b)People of single religion, i.e. Hinduism are allowed to live in the country.
(c)People of India have the freedom to live in any part of the country.
(d)All Indians are equal on the basis of caste and creed.
Ans. (i)-(c), (ii)-(a), (iii)—(b), (iv)—(c), (v)-(a).
FILL IN THE BLANKS
Fill in the blanks with appropriate word to complete each sentence.
(i)……fought for the rights of the Dalits.
(ii) The upper castes did not give the so-called ……………….. the same rights as they enjoyed.
(iii) If you do something to put other people down, you are ………………. against them.
(iv) People usually form certain altitudes and opinions about others who Eire not them.
(v) ……… stop us from looking at each person as a unique individual with his/her own special qualities and skills that are different from others.
(i) Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar (ii) untouchables
(iii) discriminating (iv) like
State whether these sentences are true (T) or false (F).
(i) We have more than 1600 languages that are people’s mothertongue.
(ii) We feel secure with people who are very different from us.
(iii) Dalits are referred to as Scheduled Tribe (ST).
(iv) Dr. .Bhim Rao Ambedkar belonged to the Mahar caste which was considered untouchable.
(v) Government jobs are open to the people who come from upper caste.
Ans: (i) True, (ii) False, (iii) False, (iv) True, (v) False.
Match the items in column A correctly with those given in column B.
Ans. (i)—(c), (ii)—(a), (iii)—(d), (iv)—(c).
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q1. How do we feel in the company of the people who are very much like us?
Ans: We feel safe and secure in the company of such people.
Q2. Define the term ‘prejudice’ with an example.
Ans: Prejudice means to judge other people negatively or see them as inferior. For example if we think that Hindi is the best language and other languages are not important, we are judging these other languages negatively.
Q3. How do parents often console boys when they fall and hurt themselves?
Ans. Parents say, “Boys are brave, they don’t cry”. ‘
Q4. Mention one drawback of stereotypes. [Imp.]
Ans: Stereotypes prevent us from doing certain things that we might otherwise be good at.
Q5. ‘Some people may experience both kinds of discrimination. ’ What do you mean by ‘both kinds of discrimination’? . [V. Imp.]
Ans: Some people are poor and they belong to groups whose culture is not valued.
Q6. Mention some activities which are considered less valued.
Ans: Activities like cleaning, washing, cutting hair, picking garbage are considered less valued.
Q7. Who was Bhim Rao Ambedkar?
Ans: He was a noted Dalit leader. He himself was a Dalit and fought for the rights of the Dalits.
Q8. What is it that can unite all Indians? [V. Imp.]
Ans: It is equality of all persons that can unite all Indians.
Q9. What responsibility has been placed on the government by the Constitution?
Ans: It is the responsibility of the government to take specific steps to realise right to equality for poor and other marginal communities.
Q10. ‘India is a secular country’. What does this mean?
Ans:This means that people of different religions and faiths have the freedom to practise and follow their religion without any fear of discrimination.
Q.11. What does the first page of our Constitution proclaim?
Ans: All Indians are entitled to equality of status and opportunity.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q1. What do you mean by difference and prejudice? [V. Imp.]
Ans:Difference is the variation in the use of language, status, religion, educational background or geographical setting. It is natural. Prejudice is an idea which is affected with negative feeling for those who are different from us.
Q2. What is the demerit of ‘stereotype’ view?
Ans: Stereotype is a negative quality. It does not allow us to think or view a person as a unique individual. We ignore all his good qualities. We don’t think about that individual beyond the set image otherwise he/she is good.
Q3. How does discrimination occur? [V. Imp.]
Ans: Discrimination is a negative aspect in a social set up. It occurs if we act on prejudices or stereotypes. It promotes ignorance of a particular class or individual in society. Such class or individual is debarred from all opportunities.
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q1. Differentiate between inequality and discrimination. [V. Imp.]
Ans: Inequality and discrimination are the two different concepts. But they are related closely to each other. Inequality may be the difference between caste, creed, culture, language, region, economic status, educational background, etc. Everyone differs from the other in society. Discrimination takes place when one acts against an individual or a community on the basis of difference. A whim or a prejudice works behind it. If one tries to exploit the other’ individual who is down in status
in any way it is called discrimination. That discriminated individual or community is devoid of the common opportunity or facility provided by the society. It is not at all healthy for a good society.
Q2. What are the Constitutional provisions for establishing equality in Indian society? Do you think these are enough?
Ans: Right from the beginning of the social set-up, India has been a victim of inequality and discrimination. Society was divided into four main castes. All the opportunities were confined to the upper class. Some of the castes were considered so low that people even scared from their shadow. It created great disparity in society. With the spread of education a consciousness against this evil system was aroused. After getting independence the Constitution makers had strong arguments against this system. So, it was declared a crime in our Constitution. It was declared that the Constitution would provide equality and right against discrimination to the citizens of India. Reservation was provided for those discriminated people in every field of life.
But still it is a fact the system persists. Only Constitutional provisions are not enough. It is observed that even after reservation, these people lay behind. They prefer earning their livelihood than going to school. A compulsory educational system should be developed. A mass consciousness is needed otherwise, we can’t hope more.