Review questions : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 63
Q1 :How does the evolutionary perspective explain the biological basis of behaviour?
Answer : The evolutionary perspective explains the biological behaviour by demonstrating the behavioural and physiological changes that occur as a result of evolution being necessary for the survival of species. For instance, increase in the capacity for cognitive behaviour like perception, memory and use of language for communication among humans is a result of the evolution. Such type of changes have occurred due to the impact of the surrounding environment and is related to abilities like finding food, avoiding predators and protecting the offspring. This is manifested in humans in the following ways:
The human brain has evolved from smaller to bigger in size.
Human beings can walk upright on their two legs.
Human beings have got a free hand with a workable opposing thumb.
Thus, the evolutionary perspective highlights the importance of the developed body and mind that humans have inherited from their ancestors and provides a biological basis of behaviour.
Q2 : Describe how neurons transmit information?
Answer : Neurons transmit information with the help of its dendrites, axon, soma and terminal buttons by converting stimuli into electrical impulses. This is done by the following method:
Dendrites receive the incoming neural impulses, from adjacent neurons or directly from the sense organs, in electrochemical form.
The nerve impulse is then passed on to the soma that is the main body of the neuron.
From soma, impulse passes on to the axon.
The axon transmits the information/impulse along its length to terminal buttons.
The terminal buttons transmit the information to another neuron, gland and muscle.
Q3 : Name the four lobes of the cerebral cortex. What functions do they perform?
Answer : The four lobes of the cerebral cortex are frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe and occipital lobe. Their functions are as follows:
Frontal lobe – It is responsible for cognitive functions such as attention, thinking, memory, reasoning and learning. It also inhibits the autonomic and emotional responses.
Parietal lobe – It is mainly concerned with cutaneous sensations and their coordination with visual and auditory sensations.
Temporal lobe – It processes the auditory information.
It also helps in understanding of speech and written language and memorising symbolic sounds and words.
Occipital lobe – It interprets visual impulses, memorises visual stimuli and helps in colour visual orientation.
Q4 : Name the various endocrine glands and the hormones secreted by them. How does the endocrine system affect our behaviour?
The various endocrine glands and the hormones secreted by them are as follows:
The endocrine system controls or regulates our behaviour with the help of chemical substances known as hormones. Hormones enable the individual to react to the stimuli present in the environment. They also enable the growth of individuals, their maturity and help in reproduction. For example, growth hormones help in growth of a child while gonadotropic hormones bring primary and secondary sexual changes. Thyroxin maintains the metabolic rate of the body while estrogens and testosterone help in reproduction. This system works with different parts of the nervous system and also known as neuroendocrine system.
Q5 :How does the autonomic nervous system help us in dealing with an emergency situation?
Answer : The autonomic nervous system helps us in dealing with an emergency situation with the help of its two divisions namely, Sympathetic division and Parasympathetic division.
(i) Sympathetic division
During an emergency situation the sympathetic division helps in quick and powerful actions.
It stops the digestion of food and causes the flow of blood from internal organs to the muscles and also increases the breathing rate, oxygen supply, heart rate and blood sugar level.
(ii) Parasympathetic division
Parasympathetic division decelerates the sympathetic division after the emergency gets over.
It brings the heart beat, breathing and blood flow to the normal levels. It also calms down the individual to the normal condition.
Q6 : Explain the meaning of culture and describe its important features.
Answer : The term culture refers to the shared customs, beliefs, values, norms institutions and other products of a community which are transmitted from one generation to another. It includes all materialistic, abstract and behavioural particulars that exist prior to the individual and consists of features that vary across societies. The important features of culture are as follows:
It contains values and language that can be expressed.
It contains a way of life that is followed by individuals who have grown in that context.
It is a historically transmitted pattern of meanings embodied in symbols.
It has influence upon human behaviour.
Q7 : Do you agree with the statement that ‘biology plays an enabling role, while specific aspects of behaviour are related to cultural factors’? Give reasons in support of your answer.
Answer : The statement that biology plays an enabling role while, specific aspects of behaviour are related to cultural factors, is correct. The reasons are as follows:
Culture decides the norms of behaviour for an individual while biology helps in materialising the behaviour.
The biological frame of the body enables the individual to create culture. The human brain, endocrine glands, hormones etc. are responsible for humans being intelligent and different from other species.
Culture ascribes meaning to biological actions and lends them rationality.
Q8 : Describe the main agents of socialisation.
Answer : The main agents of socialisation are as follows:
The socialisation of a child starts with the help of parents and other members of the family. Parents introduce the child to the society and provide the building blocks of socialisation.
Parents approve and discourage certain types of behaviour among children.
Parenting styles are based upon strategies that can be authoritative, authoritarian and democratic or permissive. They exert varying degrees of acceptance and control upon their children.
The parenting style is also influenced by conditions of life like poverty, illness etc. Grandparents and network of social relationships also socialise children through parental influences.
This agency has a direct and significant effect upon the child’s behaviour and personality.
Schools provide children with an organised set up for interaction with teachers and peers.
Children in schools learn various cognitive skills, social skills, self-control, self-initiative, responsibility, and creativity and also internalise the norms set by the society.
Schooling therefore, can transform a child’s personality since children learn to become self-reliant.
(iii) Peer group
Development of self-identity is greatly facilitated by the peer group.
Children not only learn to assert their own point of view, but also accept and adapt to those of others.
They also acquire qualities like sharing, trust, mutual understanding, role acceptance and fulfilment.
The interaction is direct, therefore the socialisation is smooth.
(iv) Mass Media
Children learn about many things through television, newspaper, books and cinema. Adolescents and young adults often derive their models from them.
Children learn to form their own opinions and ideas with interaction to mass media.
However, this agency may also promote anti-social aspects that have to be avoided by the individuals.
Q9 : How can we distinguish between enculturation and socialisation? Explain.
Answer : Enculturation and socialisation can be distinguished in the following ways:
|Enculturation is the learning that takes place without direct, deliberate teaching.
|Socialisation is a deliberate process that takes place through agencies like family, school, peer group and mass media.
|Enculturation leads to acquisition of ideas, concepts and values in a specific socio-cultural context.
|Socialisation is a general process that helps in development of knowledge, skills and dispositions that enable individuals to function effectively as members of the society.
|Enculturation takes place through observation.
|Socialisation takes place through interaction.
|The effects of enculturation are visible in the cultural behaviour of the individual.
|The effects of socialisation are to condition the individual towards socially accepted behaviour through rewards and punishment.
Q10 :What is meant by acculturation? Is acculturation a smooth process? Discuss.
Answer : Acculturation refers to the cultural and psychological changes that result from contact with other cultures. This process can be direct, indirect, voluntary or involuntary.
The smoothness of the process of acculturation depends upon the re-socialisation of the people, this is because
sometimes it is easy for people to learn new norms, values, dispositions and patterns of behaviour. Successful adaptation in such instances leads to a smooth process of acculturation towards the group that is responsible for it. Contrary to this,
individuals also face difficulties while adopting new cultural traits and it results in a state of conflict.
This situation arises mostly when acculturation is involuntary and is painful as it leads to experience of stress and other behavioural difficulties.
Q11 : Discuss the acculturative strategies adopted by individuals during the course of acculturation.
Answer : The acculturative strategies adopted by individuals during the course of acculturation are as follows:
Integration: This is an attitude of maintaining one’s own cultural traits and identity while staying in daily interaction with other culture.
Assimilation: This is an attitude of quitting one’s own culture and becoming part of another culture. It results in the loss of one’s culture and identity.
Separation: This attitude is of avoiding interaction with other culture and holding on to one’s own culture and glorifying the cultural identity.
Marginalisation: This attitude is of little interest in maintaining one’s culture and little interest in having interaction with other culture. People are indecisive about their actions and continue to stay with a lot of stress.