Q1.What is intelligence?
Ans. According to Wechsler, intelligence is an aggregate and global capacity to think rationally, deal effectively and act purposefully.
Q2. What do you mean by capacity?
Ans. It means intelligence is inborn, although by and large it is product of nature and nurture.
Q3. What do you understand by term ‘think rationally’?
Ans. Intelligence-related activities are logical, coherent, and relevant.
Q4. What do you understand by the term ‘deal effectively’?
Ans. Adaptability/adjustment — a person who is intelligent has number of solutions to cope up with the demands.
Q5. What do you understand by the ‘act purposefully’?
Ans. Intellectual activities are goal-directed.
Q6. Who is author of‘Standard Progressive Matrices’?
Ans. J.C. Raven of England.
Q7. Why term ‘standard’ has been used in SPM?
Ans. It is the original test on the basis of which other tests i.e. advanced progressive matrices & colored progressive matrices have been developed. .
Q8. Why the term progressive has been used?
Ans. Items are arranged in the increasing difficulty level.
Q9. What does SPM measure?
Ans. It measures general intelligence (g-factor), Test particularly suitable for comparing people with their immediate capacity of power of observation and clear thinking. The test measures eductive component of ‘g’ factor.
Q10. What do you mean by eductive component of ‘g’?
Ans. Eductive component is the ability to develop/forge new insights, ability to see meaning and relationships.
Q11. Why term ‘Matrices’ has been used?
Ans. The problems are in the form of designs and patterns.
Q12. How many items are there in SPM?
Ans. Items are grouped into 5 sets. Each set has 12 items. So, total number of items are 60.
Q13. What is the scoring procedure of SPM?
Ans. • Answers to all the items are checked with the help of scoring key.
•Total number of correct answers are added for each part.
•Scores for all the parts are added to get a total score.
•Scatter of scores are checked from expected score table to find out discrepancies.
•Corresponding percentiles and grades are calculated with the help of manual.
Q14. What is mental age?
Ans.Mental age is a measure of intellectual functioning expressed in terms of age. The concept was given by Alfred Binet.
Q15. What is IQ?
Ans. •It is the ratio between MA and CA.
•It is not intelligence. It is simply a measure of intelligence.
•William Stem gave the concept of IQ.
Q16.Name two features of IQ.
Ans. (i) IQ is relatively constant. It is not increasing with the age.
(ii) Average IQ is always 100.
Q17. What is the formula of IQ?
Ans. Mental age/chronological age x 100.
Q18. Why we multiply by 100?
Ans. To get the score in % tage and to avoid decimals.
Q19. What is culture fair test?
Ans. A test that does not discriminate examinees on the basis of their cultural experiences e.g., RSPM.
Q20. What is performance test of intelligence?
Ans. A test in which the role of language is minimised. The task requiring overt motor responses other than verbal, e.g., Bhatia’s Battery of intelligence test.
Q21. What are speed tests? Give example.
Ans. The tests, which are scored on the basis of speed and accuracy are known as speed tests.
e.g. Stanford Binet Test or Wais.
Q22. What is a power test? Give example.
Ans. The tests which are scored only on the basis of accuracy, are known as power tests. Here time is not the variable, e.g., RSPM.
Q23. What is a battery?
Ans. Battery is a collection of tests.
Q24. Name one individual verbal intelligence test.
Ans. Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale.
Q25. Name an intelligence test which is verbal, non-verbal as well as performance test.
Ans. Wechsler’s Adult intelligence scale (WAIS).
Q26. Name one group verbal intelligence test?
Ans. General Mental Ability TSst (GMAT) by Dr. Mohsin.
Q27. Name one non-verbal test of intelligence?
Q28. How percentage is different from percentile?
Ans. Percentage refers to a score attained out of hundred. Percentile is position of the individual among hundred.
Q29. What are sten scores?
Ans. These are standard scores indicated on standard ten point scale.
Q30.How many scales are there in M.P.I?
(i) Short scales (ii) long scales
Q31. How many items are there in MPI?
Q32. How Extroversion is different from Introversion?
Q33. What is frustration?
Ans. Frustration is a feeling of failure or obstacle in attainment of goal.
Q34. What is pressure?
Ans. It is coping with expectations of significant people.
Q35. What is emotional catharsis?
Ans. It is discharge of pent up emotions through verbal expression.
Q36. What is a questionnaire/inventory?
Ans. It is standardized set of questions. Initially developed by WToodworth in USA.
Q37. Name two Inventories?
Ans. 1. Maudsley Personality Inventory by Eyesnck.
2. Mennisotta Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMP1).
Q38. What is Maudsley?
Ans. It is a mental hospital in London.
Q39. How you will define Personality?
Ans. Personality refers to a person’s unique and relatively stable quality which characterises her/his behaviour patterns in different situations.
Q40. What is trait?
Ans. It is relatively stable characteristic pattern of behaviour which make the individual different from others.
Q41. What are the Projective techniques?
Ans. Projective techniques are tools to measure personality in which the stimulus is unstructured and provides better opportunity to get unconscious material expressed. For example, TAT, RIT, SCT, DAPT etc.
Q42. What is Projection?
Ans. Projection is a defence mechanism. The process of attributing one’s own traits, attitude or subjective process to others.
Q43. Name two projective techniques?
Ans. 1. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
2. Rorschach Ink Blot Test (RIT)
Q44. What is Aptitude?
Ans. Aptitude is the potential ability of an individual to learn a skill or proficiency. It is ; inborn and requires training to capitalise the ability.
In short, it is teachability in an individual.
Q45. What are Aptitude tests?
Ans. Aptitude tests are measure of individual’s ability to acquire new skills. Such tests are primarily used to predict future performance.
Q46. What is Skill?
Ans. Ability to perform an act with ease and precision.
Q47. Give few examples of Aptitude test.
Ans. Differential Aptitude Test (DAT) by Wesmen, Seashore and Bannett; Scientific Aptitudes Test by K.K. Aggarwal.
Q48. How Scientific Aptitude is different from Mechanical Aptitude?
Ans. In Scientific Aptitude, thinking variable is high whereas in mechanical aptitude concrete variables are tested.
Q49. Mention various uses of Aptitude test.
Ans. 1. Educational and vocational guidance.
2.Selection and recruitment.
Q50. How aptitude is different from Intelligence?
Ans. Intelligence is general energy whereas aptitude is special ability.
Intelligence is product of nature and nurture whereas aptitude is largely determined by nature.
Training is not required for the growth of intelligence but, for aptitude, training is required.
Q51. How generalised aptitude tests are different from specialised aptitude tests?
Ans. Under one generalized aptitude test many aptitudes can be measured whereas in specialized ones only one aptitude can be assessed.
Q52. What is anxiety?
Ans. Anxiety is State of psychic distress characterised by fear, apprehension and psychological arousal.
Q53. How anxiety is different from worry?
Ans. Anxiety is subjective because its cause is not known to the person whereas worry is objective because the cause is known.
Q54. What is existential anxiety?
Ans. Concept of existential anxiety was given by Victor Frankl. It is neurotic anxiety of spiritual origin.
Q55. When anxiety becomes a disorder?
Ans. When anxiety becomes prolonged, diffused and persistent without any apparent cause then anxiety becomes a disorder.
Q56. What is Stress?
Ans. Pattern of responses an organism makes to the stimulus event that disturbs the equilibrium.
Q57. What is Strain?
Ans. Reaction of stress.
Q58. What is Neurotic Anxiety?
Ans. Prolonged feeling of anxiousness and apprehension without any apparent cause.
Q59. How will you interpret high Anxiety?
Ans. Neurotic tendencies like anxiousness, apprehension, feeling of discomfort, sleep disturbances, physical symptoms etc.
Q60. How you will interpret low anxiety level?
Ans. Low anxiety indicates low motivational level of the subject.
Q61. Why this test is comprehensive?
Ans. The test items cover all aspects of anxiety, e.g. subjective and objective.
Q62.What is adjustment?
Ans. It is psychological process of coping with the demands of the self and the environment.
Q63. How adjustment is different from adaptation?
Ans. Adaptation is structural or functional change that enhances the organism survival value. It is a biological mechanism. Adjustment is a psychological process of coping with the demands.
Q64. Which areas AISS measures?
Ans. Emotional area Educational area and Social area.
Q65. Name any other tests to assess adjustment?
Ans. • Global Adjustment scale developed by Sanjay Vohra, uses sten scores, covers six
dimensions—emotional, family, health, social environment, sex and school.
•Bell’s Adjustment Inventory.
Q66.Which areas of self-concept, this test measures?
Ans. •Physical •Social
Q67. What is Self?
Ans. It is totality of conscious experiences which is a cognitive structure and starts developing at the age of two.
Q68. What is Self-concept?
Ans. It is “How one views himself” positively or negatively. It varies from one area to another.
Q69. What is Self-esteem?
Ans. How one values his self or worth of himself in his own eyes
Q70. What is Self-efficacy?
Ans. Ones own effectiveness in the group. People with high self-efficacy believe that their life outcomes are under their own control. The concept was given by Bandura in his social learning theory.
Q71.How you will score this test?
Ans. Awarding 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 according to sequence.
Q72. How self is different from personality?
Ans. Self is the core whereas personality is its manifestation. Self is realted to ideas and personality is its behavioural part.
Q73.What is a Psychological test?
Ans.Psychological tests are standardised tools to measure abilities and personalities traits. It may be verbal, non-verbal or performance.
Q74.How ordinary tests are different from psychological test?
Ans.Psychological tests are standardized whereas ordinary tests are not standardized.
Q75.How Experiments are different from Psychological test?
Ans.In experiment we prove or disapprove a hypothesis in controlled conditions whereas in psychological test we measure interest or psychological characteristics.
Q76.What is Hypothesis?
Ans. It is an assumption or tentative answer.
Q77.What is Variable?
Ans.Any measurable conditions, events characteristics or behaviour that are controlled or observed in a study and can be varied.
Q78.What is Independent variable?
Ans.The ‘cause’ or event or situation manipulated by the experimenter to see if it will have predicted effect on some other event or situation.
Q79.What is dependent variable?
Ans.The effect or the factor that is measured in an experiment. It changes because of manifestation of independent variable.
Q80.What is Intervening/Relevant variable?
Ans.Any variable other than independent variable which influences dependent variable is known as intervening variable.
Q81.How intelligence is related to adjustment?
Ans.Ability to adjust is a faculty of intelligence. High intelligence facilitates adjustment.
Q82.Who established first lab of psychology?
Ans.William Wundt in 1879 at Leipzig University in Germany.
Q83.Who is known as ‘father of experimental psychology’?
Q84.Who is known as ‘father of psychology’?
Ans.Dr. Sigmund Freud.
Q85.Who developed first intelligence test for children?
Ans. Alfred Binet.
Q86. What are Psychometric Tests?
Ans. Psychometric tests are standardized and objective measuring instrument used to assess an individual’s standing relative to others on some mental or behavioural characteristics.
Q87. Why psychologist use norms to assess abilities?
Ans. Psychological attributes can not be reduced to zero.
Q88. What are the types of intelligence?
Ans. According to Thorndike-
Concrete—ability to deal with objects.
Abstract—ability to deal with symbols and numbers.
Social—ability to deal with people and their activities.
Q89. What is Introspective report?
Ans. It is report of self-analysis.
Q90. Why it is necessary to have behavioural introspective report?
Ans. Most of our behaviour patterns are very complex and subjectively determined which can be revealed by the individual only.
Q91. What is scale?
Ans. A set of ascending or descending values used to designate position of a trait or ability e.g., Scale uses inches or centimetres or sten score table 4, 5, 6, 7 average, 1, 2, 3 low and 8, 9, 10 high.
Q92.What is reliability?
Ans. A statement about the degree of consistency of the result. It is established through test- retest or split half method.
Q93. What is validity?
Ans. The ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure. It is accuracy of the test.
Q94. What are Norms?
Ans. Standard or value based on measurements of a large group of people. It is also be named as typical score or criteria. There are various types of norms like age norms, sex norms, class norms, regional norms.
Q95. What is standardisation?
Ans. A method of establishing norms or standards and uniform procedures for a test by administering it to a large group of representative individuals.
•In short standardisation of Psychological test implies uniformity of procedure in ! instructions, administration and scoring.
Q96. What are Standard scores?
Ans. A raw score that is converted into a meaningful unit: specifically, the individuals distance from the mean in terms of the standard deviation on a given test.
Q97.What is speed test?
Ans. Psychological test is which individual difference depends solely on speed of performance.
Q98. What is Power test?
Ans. A Psychological test that has a time limit long enough for everyone to attempt all items.
Q99. What is questionnaire?
Ans. Questionnaire is a set of questions printed or typed in a definite order on a form or set of forms.
•Is is mailed to respondents who are expected to read and understand the questions and write down the reply in the space meant for the purpose in the questionnaire it self.
•It may be structured or unstructured.
•It may be close ended or open ended.
•It is main tool of research survey.
Q100. How questionnaires are different from Schedule/ Inventories?