**Exercise 2.1 : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 33
**

**Q1 :If, find the values of x and y.**

**Answer :**

It is given that.Since the ordered pairs are equal, the corresponding elements will also be equal.

Therefore, and∴ x= 2 and y= 1

**Q2 :****If the set A has 3 elements and the set B = {3, 4, 5}, then find the number of elements in (A x B)?
**

**Answer**:

It is given that set A has 3 elements and the elements of set B are 3, 4, and 5.

⇒ Number of elements in set B = 3

Number of elements in (A x B)

= (Number of elements in A) x (Number of elements in B)

= 3 x 3 = 9

Thus, the number of elements in (A x B) is 9.

**Q3 :If G = {7, 8} and H = {5, 4, 2}, find G x H and H x G.
**

**Answer :**

G = {7, 8} and H = {5, 4, 2}

We know that the Cartesian product P x Q of two non-empty sets P and Q is defined as

P x Q = {(p, q): p∈P, q ∈Q}

∴G x H = {(7, 5), (7, 4), (7, 2), (8, 5), (8, 4), (8, 2)}

H x G = {(5, 7), (5, 8), (4, 7), (4, 8), (2, 7), (2, 8)}

**Q4 :State whether each of the following statement are true or false. If the statement is false, rewrite the given statement correctly.
**

**(i) If P = {m, n} and Q = {n, m}, then P x Q = {(m, n), (n, m)}.**

**(ii) If A and B are non-empty sets, then A x B is a non-empty set of ordered pairs (x, y) such that x ∈ A and y ∈ B.**

**(iii) If A = {1, 2}, B = {3, 4}, then A x (B ∩ Φ) = Φ.**

**Answer :**

(i)False

(i)

If P = {m, n} and Q = {n, m}, then

P x Q = {(m, m), (m, n), (n, m), (n, n)}

**(ii)**True

**(iii)**True

**Q5 :If A = {-1, 1}, find A x A x A.
**

**Answer :**

It is known that for any non-empty set A, A x A x A is defined as

A x A x A = {(a, b, c): a, b, c ∈ A}

It is given that A = {-1, 1}

∴ A x A x A = {(-1, -1, -1), (-1, -1, 1), (-1, 1, -1), (-1, 1, 1),

(1, -1, -1), (1, -1, 1), (1, 1, -1), (1, 1, 1)}

**Q6 :If A x B = {(a, x), (a, y), (b, x), (b, y)}. Find A and B.
**

**Answer :**

It is given that A x B = {(a, x), (a, y), (b, x), (b, y)}We know that the Cartesian product of two non-empty sets P and Q is defined as

P x Q = {(p, q): p ∈P, q ∈Q}

∴ A is the set of all first elements and B is the set of all second elements.

Thus, A = {a, b} and B = {x, y}

**Q7 :Let A = {1, 2}, B = {1, 2, 3, 4}, C = {5, 6} and D = {5, 6, 7, 8}. Verify that
**

**(i) A x (B ∩C) = (A x B) ∩(A x C)**

**(ii) A x C is a subset of B x D**

**Answer :**

(i)To verify: A x (B ∩C) = (A x B) ∩(A x C)

(i)

We have B ∩C = {1, 2, 3, 4} ∩{5, 6} = Φ

∴L.H.S. = A x (B ∩C) = A x Φ = Φ

A x B = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (2, 4)}

A x C = {(1, 5), (1, 6), (2, 5), (2, 6)}

∴ R.H.S. = (A x B) ∩(A x C) = Φ

∴L.H.S. = R.H.S

Hence, A x (B ∩C) = (A x B) ∩(A x C)

**(ii)**To verify: A x C is a subset of B x D

A x C = {(1, 5), (1, 6), (2, 5), (2, 6)}

B x D = {(1, 5), (1, 6), (1, 7), (1, 8), (2, 5), (2, 6), (2, 7), (2, 8), (3, 5), (3, 6), (3, 7), (3, 8), (4, 5), (4, 6), (4, 7), (4, 8)}

We can observe that all the elements of set A x C are the elements of set B x D.

Therefore, A x C is a subset of B x D.

**Q8 :Let A = {1, 2} and B = {3, 4}. Write A x B. How many subsets will A x B have? List them.
**

**Answer**:

A = {1, 2} and B = {3, 4}

∴A x B = {(1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 3), (2, 4)}

⇒ n(A x B) = 4

We know that if C is a set with n(C) = m, then n[P(C)] = 2

^{m}.

Therefore, the set A x B has 24= 16 subsets. These are

Φ, {(1, 3)}, {(1, 4)}, {(2, 3)}, {(2, 4)}, {(1, 3), (1, 4)}, {(1, 3), (2, 3)},

{(1, 3), (2, 4)}, {(1, 4), (2, 3)}, {(1, 4), (2, 4)}, {(2, 3), (2, 4)},

{(1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 3)}, {(1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 4)}, {(1, 3), (2, 3), (2, 4)},

{(1, 4), (2, 3), (2, 4)}, {(1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 3), (2, 4)}

**Q9 :Let A and B be two sets such that n(A) = 3 and n (B) = 2. If (x, 1), (y, 2), (z, 1) are in A x B, find A and B, where x, y and z are distinct elements.
**

**Answer :**

It is given that n(A) = 3 and n(B) = 2; and (x, 1), (y, 2), (z, 1) are in A x B.

We know that A = Set of first elements of the ordered pair elements of A x B

B = Set of second elements of the ordered pair elements of A x B.

∴ x, y, and z are the elements of A; and 1 and 2 are the elements of B.

Since n(A) = 3 and n(B) = 2, it is clear that A = {x, y, z} and B = {1, 2}.

**Q10 :The Cartesian product A x A has 9 elements among which are found (-1, 0) and (0, 1). Find the set A and the remaining elements of A x A.
**

**Answer :**

We know that if n(A) = p and n(B) = q, then n(A x B) = pq.

∴ n(A x A) = n(A) x n(A)

It is given that n(A x A) = 9

∴ n(A) x n(A) = 9

⇒ n(A) = 3

The ordered pairs (-1, 0) and (0, 1) are two of the nine elements of A x A.

We know that A x A = {(a, a): a ∈A}. Therefore, -1, 0, and 1 are elements of A.

Since n(A) = 3, it is clear that A = {-1, 0, 1}.

The remaining elements of set A x A are (-1, -1), (-1, 1), (0, -1), (0, 0),

(1, -1), (1, 0), and (1, 1)

**Exercise 2.2 : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 35**

**Q1 :Let A = {1, 2, 3, … , 14}. Define a relation R from A to A by R = {(x, y): 3x – y = 0, where x, y ∈ A}. Write down its domain, codomain and range.
**

**Answer :**

The relation R from A to A is given as

R = {(x, y): 3x – y = 0, where x, y ∈ A}

i.e., R = {(x, y): 3x = y, where x, y ∈ A}

∴R = {(1, 3), (2, 6), (3, 9), (4, 12)}

The domain of R is the set of all first elements of the ordered pairs in the relation.

∴Domain of R = {1, 2, 3, 4}

The whole set A is the codomainof the relation R.

∴Codomain of R = A = {1, 2, 3, …, 14}

The range of R is the set of all second elements of the ordered pairs in the relation.

∴Range of R = {3, 6, 9, 12}

**Q2 :Define a relation R on the set N of natural numbers by R = {(x, y): y= x+ 5, x is a natural number less than 4; x, y ∈ N}. Depict this relationship using roster form. Write down the domain and the range.
**

**Answer :**

R = {(x, y): y= x+ 5, xis a natural number less than 4, x, y ∈ N}

The natural numbers less than 4 are 1, 2, and 3.

∴R = {(1, 6), (2, 7), (3, 8)}

The domain of R is the set of all first elements of the ordered pairs in the relation.

∴ Domain of R = {1, 2, 3}

The range of R is the set of all second elements of the ordered pairs in the relation.

∴ Range of R = {6, 7, 8}

**Q3 :A = {1, 2, 3, 5} and B = {4, 6, 9}. Define a relation R from A to B by R = {(x, y): the difference between x and y is odd; x ∈A, y ∈B}. Write R in roster form.
**

**Answer :**

A = {1, 2, 3, 5} and B = {4, 6, 9}

R = {(x, y): the difference between x and y is odd; x ∈A, y ∈B}

∴R = {(1, 4), (1, 6), (2, 9), (3, 4), (3, 6), (5, 4), (5, 6)}

**Q4 :The given figure shows a relationship between the sets P and Q. write this relation
**

**(i) in set-builder form (ii) in roster form.**

**What is its domain and range?**

**Answer :
**According to the given figure, P = {5, 6, 7}, Q = {3, 4, 5}

**(i)**R = {(x, y): y = x- 2; x ∈P} or R = {(x, y): y = x- 2 for x= 5, 6, 7}

**(ii)**R = {(5, 3), (6, 4), (7, 5)}

Domain of R = {5, 6, 7}

Range of R = {3, 4, 5}

**Q5 :Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6}. Let R be the relation on A defined by
**

**{(a, b): a, b ∈A, bis exactly divisible by a}.**

**(i) Write R in roster form**

**(ii) Find the domain of R**

**(iii) Find the range of R.**

**Answer :**

A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6}, R = {(a, b): a, b ∈ A, b is exactly divisible by a}

**(i)**R = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (1, 6), (2, 2), (2, 4), (2, 6), (3, 3), (3, 6), (4, 4), (6, 6)}

**(ii)**Domain of R = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6}

**(iii)**Range of R = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6}

**Q6 :Determine the domain and range of the relation R defined by R = {(x, x+ 5): x ∈{0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}}.
**

**Answer :**

R = {(x, x+ 5): x ∈{0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}}

∴ R = {(0, 5), (1, 6), (2, 7), (3, 8), (4, 9), (5, 10)}

∴Domain of R = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

Range of R = {5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}

**Q7 :Write the relation R = {(x, x ^{3}): x is a prime number less than 10} in roster form.
**

**Answer :**

R = {(x, x

^{3}): x is a prime number less than 10}

The prime numbers less than 10 are 2, 3, 5, and 7.

∴R = {(2, 8), (3, 27), (5, 125), (7, 343)}

**Q8 :Let A = {x, y, z} and B = {1, 2}. Find the number of relations from A to B.
**

**Answer :**

It is given that A = {x, y, z} and B = {1, 2}.

∴ A x B = {(x, 1), (x, 2), (y, 1), (y, 2), (z, 1), (z, 2)}

Since n(A x B) = 6, the number of subsets of A x B is 26.

Therefore, the number of relations from A to B is 2

^{6}.

**Q9 :Let R be the relation on Z defined by R = {(a, b): a, b ∈ Z, a – b is an integer}. Find the domain and range of R.
**

**Answer :**

R = {(a, b): a, b ∈ Z, a – b is an integer}

It is known that the difference between any two integers is always an integer.

∴Domain of R = Z

Range of R = Z

**Exercise 2.3 :Solutions of Questions on Page Number:44**

**Q1 :Which of the following relations are functions? Give reasons. If it is a function, determine its domain and range.**

**(i) {(2, 1), (5, 1), (8, 1), (11, 1), (14, 1), (17, 1)}**

**(ii) {(2, 1), (4, 2), (6, 3), (8, 4), (10, 5), (12, 6), (14, 7)}**

**(iii) {(1, 3), (1, 5), (2, 5)}
**

**Answer :**

**(i)**{(2, 1), (5, 1), (8, 1), (11, 1), (14, 1), (17, 1)}

Since 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, and 17 are the elements of the domain of the given relation having their unique images, this relation is a function.

Here, domain = {2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17} and range = {1}

**(ii)**{(2, 1), (4, 2), (6, 3), (8, 4), (10, 5), (12, 6), (14, 7)}

Since 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 are the elements of the domain of the given relation having their unique images, this relation is a function.

Here, domain = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14} and range = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}

**(iii)**{(1, 3), (1, 5), (2, 5)}

Since the same first element i.e., 1 corresponds to two different images i.e., 3 and 5, this relation is not a function.

**Q2 :Find the domain and range of the following real function:**

**(i) f(x) = -|x| (ii)**

**Answer :
**(i) f(x) = -|x|, x ∈R

We know that |x| =Since f(x) is defined for x ∈ R, the domain of f is R.

It can be observed that the range of f(x) = -|x| is all real numbers except positive real numbers.

∴ The range of f is (-∞, 0].

**(ii)**Since is defined for all real numbers that are greater than or equal to -3 and less than or equal to 3, the domain of f(x) is {x :-3 ≤ x ≤ 3} or [-3, 3].

For any value of x such that -3 ≤ x≤ 3, the value of f(x) will lie between 0 and 3.

∴The range of f(x) is {x: 0 ≤ x ≤ 3} or [0, 3].

**Q3 :A function f is defined by f(x) = 2x- 5. Write down the values of
**

**(i) f(0) (ii) f(7) (iii) f(-3)**

**Answer :**

The given function is f(x) = 2x- 5.

Therefore,

**(i)**f(0) = 2 x 0 – 5 = 0 – 5 = -5

**(ii)**f(7) = 2 x 7 – 5 = 14 – 5 = 9

**(iii)**f(-3) = 2 x (-3) – 5 = – 6 – 5 = -11

**Q4 :The function ‘t’ which maps temperature in degree Celsius into temperature in degree Fahrenheit is defined by.
**

**Find (i) t(0) (ii) t(28) (iii) t(-10) (iv) The value of C, when t(C) = 212**

**Answer :**

The given function is.Therefore,

**(i)**

**(ii)**

**(iii)**

**(iv)** It is given that t(C) = 212

Thus, the value of t,when t(C) = 212, is 100.

**Q5 :Find the range of each of the following functions.
**

**(i) f(x) = 2 – 3x, x ∈ R, x> 0.**

**(ii) f(x) = x2+ 2, x, is a real number.**

**(iii) f(x) = x, xis a real number**

**Answer :**

(i)f(x) = 2 -3x, x ∈ R, x> 0

(i)

The values of f(x) for various values of real numbers x> 0 can be written in the tabular form as

x | 0.01 | 0.1 | 0.9 | 1 | 2 | 2.5 | 4 | 5 | … |

f(x) | 1.97 | 1.7 | -0.7 | -1 | -4 | -5.5 | -10 | -13 | .. |

Thus, it can be clearly observed that the range of fis the set of all real numbers less than 2.

i.e., range of f= (-∞, 2)

**Alter:
**Let x > 0

⇒3x > 0

⇒ 2 -3x< 2

⇒ f(x) < 2

∴Range of f = (-∞, 2)

**(ii)**f(x) = x

^{2}+ 2, x, is a real number

The values of f(x) for various values of real numbers xcan be written in the tabular form as

x | 0 | ±0.3 | ±0.8 | ±1 | ±2 | ±3 | … |

f(X) | 2 | 2.09 | 2.64 | 3 | 6 | 11 | … |

Thus, it can be clearly observed that the range of f is the set of all real numbers greater than 2.

i.e., range of f= [2,∞)

**Alter:
**Let x be any real number.

Accordingly,

x

^{2}≥0

⇒ x

^{2}+ 2 ≥0 + 2

⇒ x

^{2}+ 2 ≥2

⇒ f(x) ≥2

∴ Range of f = [2,∞)

**(iii)**f(x) = x, x is a real number

It is clear that the range of f is the set of all real numbers.

∴ Range of f = R

**Exercise Miscellaneous : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 46**

**Q1 :The relation f is defined by****The relation g is defined by****Show that f is a function and g is not a function.
**

**Answer :**

The relation f is defined as It is observed that for

0 ≤ x < 3, f(x) = x

^{2}

3 < x ≤10, f(x) = 3x

Also, at x = 3, f(x) = 3

^{2}= 9 or f(x) = 3 × 3 = 9

i.e., at x = 3, f(x) = 9

Therefore, for 0 ≤ x ≤10, the images of f(x) are unique.

Thus, the given relation is a function.

The relation g is defined as

It can be observed that for x= 2, g(x) = 22 = 4 and g(x) = 3 × 2 = 6

Hence, element 2 of the domain of the relation gcorresponds to two different images i.e., 4 and 6. Hence, this relation is not a function.

**Q2 :If f(x) = x ^{2}, find **

**Answer :**

**Q3 :Find the domain of the function**

**Answer :
**The given function is It can be seen that function f is defined for all real numbers except at x= 6 and x= 2.

Hence, the domain of f is R – {2, 6}.

**Q4 :Find the domain and the range of the real function f defined by **

**Answer :
**The given real function is It can be seen that is defined for (x -1) ≥0.

i.e., is defined for x ≥1.

Therefore, the domain of f is the set of all real numbers greater than or equal to 1

i.e. , the domain of f= [1,∞).

As x ≥1 ⇒(x – 1) ≥0 ⇒Therefore, the range of f is the set of all real numbers greater than or equal to 0 i.e., the range of f= [0,∞).

**Q5 :Find the domain and the range of the real function f defined by f(x) = |x- 1|.
**

**Answer :**

The given real function is f(x) = |x- 1|.

It is clear that |x- 1| is defined for all real numbers.

∴Domain of f= R

Also, for x ∈ R, |x- 1| assumes all real numbers.

Hence, the range of f is the set of all non-negative real numbers.

**Q6 :Let**

** be a function from R into R. Determine the range of f.**

**Answer :**

The range of f is the set of all second elements. It can be observed that all these elements are greater than or equal to 0 but less than 1.

[Denominator is greater numerator]

Thus, range of f= [0, 1)

**Q7 :Let f, g: R→R be defined, respectively by f(x) = x + 1, g(x) = 2x – 3. Find f+ g, f-g and ****Answer :
**f, g: R

**→**R is defined as f(x) = x + 1, g(x) = 2x – 3

(f+ g) (x) = f(x) + g(x) = (x + 1) + (2x – 3) = 3x – 2

∴(f + g) (x) = 3x – 2

(f – g) (x) = f(x) – g(x) = (x + 1) – (2x – 3) = x+ 1 – 2x+ 3 = -x+ 4

∴ (f – g) (x) = -x+ 4

**Q8 :Let f = {(1, 1), (2, 3), (0, -1), (-1, -3)} be a function from Z to Z defined by f(x) = ax+ b, for some integers a, b. Determine a, b.
**

**Answer :**

f = {(1, 1), (2, 3), (0, -1), (-1, -3)}

f(x) = ax+ b

(1, 1) ∈ f

⇒ f(1) = 1

⇒ a x 1 + b= 1

⇒ a+ b= 1

(0, -1) ∈ f

⇒ f(0) = -1

⇒ a x 0 + b= -1

⇒ b= -1

On substituting b= -1 in a+ b= 1, we obtain a+ (-1) = 1 ⇒ a= 1 + 1 = 2.

Thus, the respective values of a and b are 2 and -1.

**Q9 :Let R be a relation from N to N defined by R = {(a, b): a, b ∈ N and a = b ^{2}}. Are the following true?
**

**(i) (a, a) ∈ R, for all a ∈ N**

**(ii) (a, b) ∈ R, implies (b, a) ∈ R**

**(iii) (a, b) ∈ R, (b, c) ∈ R implies (a, c) ∈ R.**

**Answer :**

R = {(a, b): a, b ∈ N and a = b

^{2}}

**(i)**It can be seen that 2 ∈ N;however, 2 ≠ 2

^{2}= 4.

Therefore, the statement “(a, a) ∈ R, for all a ∈ N” is not true.

**(ii)**It can be seen that (9, 3) ∈ N because 9, 3 ∈ N and 9 = 3

^{2}.

Now, 3 ≠ 9

^{2}= 81; therefore, (3, 9) ∉ N

Therefore, the statement “(a, b) ∈ R, implies (b, a) ∈ R” is not true.

**(iii)**It can be seen that (16, 4) ∈ R, (4, 2) ∈ R because 16, 4, 2 ∈ N and 16 = 42 and 4 = 22.

Now, 16 ≠ 22 = 4; therefore, (16, 2) ∉ N

Therefore, the statement “(a, b) ∈ R, (b, c) ∈ R implies (a, c) ∈ R” is not true.

**Q10 :Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {1, 5, 9, 11, 15, 16} and f = {(1, 5), (2, 9), (3, 1), (4, 5), (2, 11)}. Are the following true?
**

**(i) f is a relation from A to B (ii) f is a function from A to B.**

**Justify your answer in each case.**

**Answer :**

A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {1, 5, 9, 11, 15, 16}

∴A x B = {(1, 1), (1, 5), (1, 9), (1, 11), (1, 15), (1, 16), (2, 1), (2, 5), (2, 9), (2, 11), (2, 15), (2, 16), (3, 1), (3, 5), (3, 9), (3, 11), (3, 15), (3, 16), (4, 1), (4, 5), (4, 9), (4, 11), (4, 15), (4, 16)}

It is given that f = {(1, 5), (2, 9), (3, 1), (4, 5), (2, 11)}

**(i)**A relation from a non-empty set A to a non-empty set B is a subset of the Cartesian product A x B.

It is observed that f is a subset of A x B.

Thus, f is a relation from A to B.

**(ii)**Since the same first element i.e., 2 corresponds to two different images i.e., 9 and 11, relation f is not a function.

**Q11 :Let f be the subset of Z x Z defined by f = {(ab, a+ b): a, b ∈ Z}. Is fa function from Z to Z: justify your answer.
**

**Answer :**

The relation f is defined as f = {(ab, a+ b): a, b ∈ Z}

We know that a relation f from a set A to a set B is said to be a function if every element of set A has unique images in set B.

Since 2, 6, -2, -6 ∈ Z, (2 x 6, 2 + 6), (-2 x -6, -2 + (-6)) ∈ f

i.e., (12, 8), (12, -8) ∈ f

It can be seen that the same first element i.e., 12 corresponds to two different images i.e., 8 and -8. Thus, relation f is not a function.

**Q12 :Let A = {9, 10, 11, 12, 13} and let f: A → Nbe defined by f(n) = the highest prime factor of n. Find the range of f.
**

**Answer :**

A = {9, 10, 11, 12, 13}

f: A → N is defined as

f(n) = The highest prime factor of n

Prime factor of 9 = 3

Prime factors of 10 = 2, 5

Prime factor of 11 = 11

Prime factors of 12 = 2, 3

Prime factor of 13 = 13

∴f(9) = The highest prime factor of 9 = 3

f(10) = The highest prime factor of 10 = 5

f(11) = The highest prime factor of 11 = 11

f(12) = The highest prime factor of 12 = 3

f(13) = The highest prime factor of 13 = 13

The range of f is the set of all f(n), where n ∈A.

∴Range of f= {3, 5, 11, 13}