Answer the following Questions
Q1. How would Maya’s life be different in South Africa today?
Ans: Maya’s life would be different in South Africa today in terms of equal status in society. She would get a school where children from all classes, rich or poor, high or low, black or white study together. The same hospital would treat her which treats for all sorts of people. There would be no ambulance to be used separately for any white or ruling class. She would get the equal voting right. She would use language of her choice. She would lead a free life.
Q2.What are the various ways in which people participate in the process of government?
There are various ways in which people participate in the process of government:
Through voting in elections people elect leaders of their choice to represent them. These representatives take decisions on behalf of the people.
People participate in the process of government by taking an interest in the working of the government and by criticising it when required.
People express their views through several ways and make governments understand what actions they should take. They stage dhamas, hold rallies, strikes, signature campaigns, etc.
Another ways for people to participate is by organising themselves into social movements that seek to challenge the government and its functioning. Members of the minority community can participate in this manner.
Q3.Why do you think we need the government to find solutions to many disputes or conflicts?
Ans: Government is a constitutional body that maintains law and order. It consists of the representatives of all classes from all parts of the country. Problems or conflicts arise in states, between two or more states and sometimes between two nations. The government represents the country and also the head of the constitutional system. So, it can resolve conflicts in the interest of the people at large. A system without a government may face crisis and lawlessness. Hence, government is necessary.
Q4.What actions does the government take to ensure that all people are treated equally?
Ans: The government ensures that the constitutional provisions are implied in the country. It makes laws and enforces them to abolish all sorts of discriminations. It makes provisions to provide equal facilities to all classes of people, promotion of education among girls and economically backwards. These are some of the actions that the government takes to ensure equality among people.
Q5.Read through the chapter and discuss some of the key ideas of a democratic government. Make a list. For example, all people are equal
All people are equal.
Justice to all.
Opportunities for equal education to all.
Abolition of discriminations.
Equal status to all religions.
Abolition of untouchability.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
Choose the correct option to complete the statements given below:
(i) Hector and his classmates wanted to learn their own language. What was their language?
(a) Afrikaans (b) Zulu
(c) English (d) Malyalam.
(ii) The leader of the African National Congress was …………………
(a) Nelson Mandela (b) Vinni Mandela
(c) Yasar Arafat (d) Kofi Annan.
(iii) In India, the government is elected for the period of……………………
(a) Two years (b) Three years
(c) Five years (d) Six years.
(iv) The two states involved in the Cauvery water dispute are …………………….
(a) Karnataka and Tamil Nadu (b) Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh (c) Kerala and Tamil Nadu (d) Orissa and Kolkata.
(v) South Africa became a democratic country in the year………………….
(a) 1950 (b) 1970
c) 1984 (d)1994
Ans. (i)—(b), (ii)—(a), (iii)—(c), (iv)—(a), (v)—(d).
FILL IN THE BLANKS
Fill in the blanks with appropriate words to complete each sentence:
(i) In South Africa, there live black people, …………….. and Indians.
(ii) Blacks and coloured people were not considered to be ……………….. to whites.
(iii) The African National Congress led the struggle against …………………..
(iv) Through ………. in elections people elect leaders to represent them.
(v) Religious processions and celebrations can sometimes lead to ……………………..
(i) whites (ii) equal
(iii) apartheid (iv) voting
State whether these sentences are true (T) or false (F).
(i) Non-whites could vote in South Africa before 1994.
(ii) It was the effort of Nelson Mandela that made South Africa a democratic country.
(iii) Conflicts and differences are resolved by the laws laid by our Constitution, (in) Apartheid system in South Africa was abolished in the year 1990.
(iv) In our society boys and girls are valued equally.
Ans. (i)—F, (ii)—T, (iii)—T, (iv)—F, (v)—F.
Match the items given in column A correctly with those given in column B correctly.
Column A Column B
(i)Untouchability (a) Through voting
(ii) Equality and justice (b) Black
(iii) Afrikaans (c) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
(iv) Hector Ndlovu (d)Q Whites
(v) People elect leaders to (e) Key elements of democracy
Ans. (i)-(c), (ii)—(e), (iii)-(d), (iv)-(b), (v)-(a).
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q1. Name the various races that live in South Africa
Ans: Various races that live in South Africa Eire :
Black people who belong to South Africa
Whites who came there to settle
Indians who came as labourers and traders.
Q2. What do you mean by apartheid? [V. Imp.]
Ans: Apartheid means separation on people on the basis of race are known as apartheid laws.
Q3. Name one black township.
Ans:South Western Township (Soweto).
Q4. Who was Hector? What did he want?.
Ans: Hector was a non-white. He wanted to learn his own language Zulu.
Q5. Name the party that fought against the system of apartheid. [V. Imp.]
Ans: The African National Congress.
Q6. Who is responsible for helping to resolveconflicts or differences?
Ans:The government is responsible for helping to resolve conflicts or differences.
Q.7. What is the role of police when there is a chance of violence?
Ans: The police try their best to ensure that violence does not take place.
Q.8. How did Dr. Ambedkar and many others like his view equality and justice?
Ans: They thought that justice can only be achieved when people are treated equally.
Q. 9. How do our society view boys and girls? [V. Imp.]
Ans: In our society there is a general tendency to value and care for the boy children more than the girl children. Thus, the society does not keep boys and girls at the same level.
Q.10. What does government do to promote justice among the girls? [Imp.]
Ans.: The government provides special provisions promote justice among the girls. It may lower the school fees for girls.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q1. What are apartheid laws? [V. Imp.]
Ans. South Africa was earlier governed by apartheid laws. South African people were divided into white, black, Indian and coloured races. According to apartheid laws, these races were not allowed to mingle with each other, to live near each other or even to use common facilities.
Q2. What happened to Hector and his classmates? Why did it happen?
Ans: Hector and his classmates, because they were non-whites luring in one black township named Soweto, were being forced to learn the language of whites i.e. Afrikaans. But they wanted to learn their own language, zulu and joined the protest against learning the Afrikaans language in school. The South African police beat up the protestors ruthlessly and shot at the crowd. One of their bullets killed Hector.
Q3. Write a short note on ‘The African National Congress’. [Imp.]
Ans: The African National Congress, a group of people who led the struggle against the system of apartheid. Dr. Nelson Mandela was their leader. The struggle got intensified under his leadership. He fought the apartheid system for several years. Finally, the system was abolished in 1994 and South Africa became a democratic country in which people of all races were considered equal.
Q4. How does the power of the government got limited?
Ans: The power of the government gets limited by regular elections. Elections are usually held once in five years. Once elected, governments can stay in power only for that period. If they want to continue to be in power then they have to re-elected by the people. This is a moment when people can sense their power in a democracy.
Q5. When do conflicts occur? What happens afterwards? [V. Imp.]
Ans: Conflicts occur when people of different cultures, religions, regions or economic background do not get along with each other, or when some among them feel they are being discriminated against. This leads to fear and tension among others living in an area.
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q1. One of the ways of participating is to take interest in the working of the government and to criticise it when required. Explain with an example.
Ans. It is one of the important ways of participation. We can prove it through an example. In August 2005, when a particular government increased the money people had to pay for electricity, people expressed their disapproval very sharply. They took rallies and also organised a signature campaign. The government tried to explain and defend its decision but finally listened to the people’s opinion and withdrew the increase. The government had to change its decision because it is responsible to the people.
Q2. How do rivers become a source of conflict between states? [V. Imp.]
Ans. Rivers can also become a source of conflict between states. A river may begin in one state, Flow through another and end in a third. The sharing of river water between different states that the river goes through is becoming an issue of conflict. We can cite an example of Cauveiy water dispute between Karnataka
and Tamil Nadu. The water stored In Krishnasagar dam in Karnataka is used for irrigating a number of districts and for meeting the needs of the city of Bangalore. The water stored in Methur dam in Tamil Nadu is used for crops grown in the delta region of that state.
A conflict arises because both dams Eire on the same river. The downstream dam in Tamil Nadu can only be filled up if water is released from the upstream one located in Karnataka. Therefore, both states can’t get as much water as they need for people in their states. This leads to conflict. Now, it is the job of central government to step in and see that a fair distribution is worked out for both states.